This book presents my concept of poetic thinking in the context of debates around the anthropological question, that is ‘what is being human?’, building on ‘thinking language’ and dialogical thinking, developing a poetological anthropology. It evokes political and social issues to demonstrate why poetics is of general relevance for our times. The essay relates these questions to insights of quantum physics and neurosciences and discusses aspects of contemporary technology, media and medicine, employing notions from contemporary thinkers, such as atmospheres, immanent transcendence, silence and presence. Poetic thinking considers the world in its togetherness, offering an alternative to the opposition of subject and object. It demonstrates the transformative power in the interaction of the form of language and the form of life. Poetic thinking takes place when a subject constitutes itself in creative and dialogical language, transforming its ways of feeling and thinking, in short, its way of perceiving the world.